Wednesday, January 21, 2015

Next blog-post journal club: 18 February on Fostering the integration of information literacy and journalism practice

Next discussion: Wednesday 18 February, 8pm GMT 

Article: Fostering the integration of information literacy and journalism practice: a long term study of journalism students (http://dx.doi.org/10.11645/8.2.1941

Huge thanks to Margy MacMillan for writing this blog post and agreeing to join us in the discussion!

When I first received the invitation to the Journal Club, I had to read it a few times to make sure I wasn`t hallucinating (in my defence, it was 5 a.m. my time). I am so honoured to be part of this as I have enjoyed lurking or catching up on discussions after the fact and find them fascinating. I’m really looking forward to this! Thanks to those who set up these events, and also to previous authors for providing excellent model blog posts.

The article in question is Fostering the integration of information literacy and journalism practice: a long term study of journalism students (http://dx.doi.org/10.11645/8.2.1941), based on a project that ran from 2003-2013. The project has used a simple résumé format that asks students to annually reflect on and record their experience with information. In the first half of that study I looked at what students decided to include in their information skills, and how they described what they knew or could do. In reviewing data from 2008-2013 for similar data, I saw a more interesting story in how they were blending their information skills and knowledge into their journalism work. Many students went beyond listing resources they used to articulating how they used them, providing a window into the transfer of knowledge between their personal, academic and professional domains.

Because it isn't research unless there
are at least 4 colours of highlighter...
Students used information skills and knowledge for a number of journalistic processes: finding story ideas, identifying sources to interview, fact-checking, and reviewing the work of others to use as models, or identify gaps in coverage. Intriguingly, they included personal traits among their information skills such as curiosity and persistence – equally useful in journalism and IL. Comments throughout the résumés included many indications of knowledge transfer from one information task or ecosystem to another, and some students were explicit about this, perhaps exhibiting metaliteracy.

While I was writing the article, the ACRL was developing a new Framework for Information Literacy, informed by Hofer, Townsend and Brunetti’s work on threshold concepts. I had seen their early work and was really intrigued by this approach. Many Twitter discussions of the Framework centred around assessment and it occurred to me that the longer term, qualitative data I had might provide evidence of threshold crossing. I think it does… and I’m REALLY interested to hear what YOU think. Where I see the data being useful is in providing examples of how students describe threshold knowledge. They might not come right out and say “Authority is Constructed and Contextual”, but when they talk about finding new voices to add to a story, or bringing conflicting expert opinions together, or understanding biases in information I think they’re talking about this concept.

I don’t want to anticipate or pre-direct where the discussion will go – but here are some things that I’ve been thinking about since I hit the send button on the final copy of the article…

How much of a role did the discipline play in knowledge transfer? I was very interested to read the last discussion of Michelle Dalton’s work on healthcare professionals, and wonder what integration looks like in practical and academic work across disciplines. What does it look like for you?

What can we do in our teaching to promote this integration? – or is it just a factor of time and practice?

If this kind of evidence hints at threshold concepts, are there ways of developing assessment that will capture students’ understanding. (My mind went to the trailcams we use here for wildlife – if only we could do something similar to capture threshold crossing)…

What questions do you have about the study?

How does this discussion work? Anyone can join this discussion!  Participants aim to read at least some of the article in advance, then come along at 8pm GMT and join in the discussion by adding comments to this blog post. You can see how this works by looking at previous discussions (just scroll down the blog for previous posts). 

123 comments:

  1. We're starting the discussion in 5 minutes, that's 8pm GMT. Some tips for anyone new to this format:

    - Refresh the page often, to see the latest conversations

    - Use the "reply" link to reply to a particular comment, or use the "post a comment" box to start a new idea or question.

    We're looking forward to the discussion!

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    1. And.... it's eight o'clock! Let's start with some introductions - I support a university engineering department, supporting students, researchers, teaching and administrative staff. Who else is here?

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    2. I'd like to start by thanking you for setting this up!

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    3. Thank you for joining us! I really enjoyed your article, found myself thinking a lot about how I could do more to frame information skills in terms that make sense to engineers, just as you have done with journalists.

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    4. would love to know what their core info needs are.... I think discussion of Standards (not the ACRL kind) could lead to all sorts of 'authority is constructed and contextual' stuff as they've evolved over time in response to research

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    5. Yes, there's an excellent book on integrating information into the design process (linked to further down the comments) that I'm finding informative for this. Looking forward to thinking more about how we can support this.

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  2. Hello! I'm Sheila Webber, I teach at the Information School at Sheffield University, thanks for setting up the discussion in your post, Margy!

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  3. Evening - I'm Helen, currently a liaison librarian at Newcastle University. Really looking forward to the discussion on this fascinating article!

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  4. Firstly, I found myself being very jealous at the level of integration Margy had within the course. Being able to take the time to really understand the subject in order to reframe IL so it is as relevant as possible - finding stories, finding sources, finding background info, fact checking. Wouldn't it be wonderful if we could do this for all subjects?!

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    1. I'm very fortunate - have a great group of faculty to work with in disciplines that really understand the importance of IL

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    2. It is certainly a profession where you don't have to hunt around for applications of information literacy!

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    3. Would be interesting to chart out information needs that way for other disciplines... what might yours look like?

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    4. To me this is being truly embedded - being there to answer queries on an ongoing basis. I teach sessions within modules which are officially part of the module, but I'm not there to help with follow up unless the student seeks me out. I think resources would prevent me doing this in all the subjects I support unfortunately.

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    5. And I have to say, I spend more time working with journalism students than other areas, partly because they get to know me better in first year, so seem to seek me out more for help with latter assignments. Also - learning what the discipline needs has taken time - and a certain amount of letting go...

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    6. I've just moved from supporting social sciences to science & engineering - I'm still learning how to frame IL in these new areas, but it's very much practical project based/ problem solving, so need to think these processes through.

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    7. What do you mean by 'letting go' Margy? Another comment I picked up on in your article was that you learned a lot from the student reported data as it picked up things you didn't expect.

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    8. Thanks Margy - It reminded me of some work done by Jisc about students and the 'learning black market' - sources they use but feel they shouldn't. Students aren't clear what they can and can't use. I had a postgraduate student a couple of weeks ago ask me if a government publication 'ranked' above a journal article!

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    9. Helen, I think this will help with the engineering side of things: http://www.thepress.purdue.edu/titles/integrating-information-engineering-design-process

      It looks at how information fits into models of the design process. As with all things though, it would be useful to know to what extent engineers use those models in real life. (I suspect that's in the book but I haven't got to that bit yet!)

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    10. @Helen yes I think it can end up being more confusing if you have too much about one source being good and another bad ... Wikipedia is the most obvious example. I've been reading a lot of research articles, as well as talking to students here, and younger people all seem to have been brainwashed into saying that they know Wikipedia isn't reliable, and they have to cope with very inconsistent advice from different teachers. However many of them seem to be using it in a very sensible way and know that it's really quite useful.

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    11. Thanks Niamh - I'll follow that up!

      Have to say I'm struggling a bit with this issue as most of the lecturers I know seem to rely on Google Scholar, so convincing students of the importance of other sources can be tricky! I suppose it comes back to teaching over-arching critical skills and using your judgement - that is certainly a threshold concept for me: the moment students realise their judgement/opinion is valued as well as what's already been published.

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    12. Scholarship as a conversation... :-)

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    13. That's a good point Sheila, I tend to to speak frankly about which tool is best for the job, getting students to look at a range of sources and think about what's good or bad about each type. Seems to work well as a small group exercise.

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    14. I aim to be pragmatic; if there's an easy way that works quite well, there doesn't seem much point plugging away telling people to do it the perfect but difficult way - Google Scholar is my friend, lol

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    15. Sorry I missed this discussion in progress - fascinating and I love the term 'black market information' visualizing all sorts of clandestine information assignations.... I tend to err on the side of practical too.... and also - sorry i responded to the letting go question in the next section. glad you found it.
      Convincing faculty there are sources beyond the holy grail of peer-reviewed articles and that those may not be the most useful info sources for first year students is a whole 'nother discussion - Have actually been teaching a lot of how to read academic articles rather than how to find them

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    16. @Margy, yes, some of the problems with academic writing come from not being able to cope with academic reading, I think. I've found teaching old-fashioned abstracting useful, as being able to identify and summarise key points can be challenging. Also this year part of an assignment for a big class of mostly international students was about identifying why they thought author "A" had cited other papers (using a list of possible reasons, from the literature, there's been a lot of research about this), so trying to get them to think about the relationship between different contributions to the "conversation".

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    17. Have seen similar work in an article using a BEAM method...I did some work to find out what students thought barriers were- unfamiliar structure/length, jargon and numbers were top answers, so I work with them on that and active reading - questioning, connecting, summarizing... Leads to some good discussions about differences between this kind of reading for concept/integration and other kinds of reading they do...

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    18. The article that the "reasons" list came from that we used was Harwood, N. (2009) An interview-based study of the functions of citations in academic writing across two disciplines. Journal of Pragmatics, 41(3), 497-518. doi: 10.1016/j.pragma.2008.06.001 - my colleague Peter Willett who I was working with had also written an article on this topic: Willett P (2013) Readers' perceptions of authors' citation behaviour. Journal of Documentation, 69(1), 145-156. (which actually showed that readers weren't that good at guessing why authors had cited! But it still seems a useful exercise in getting students to think about the issue)

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  5. I'm Margy - Instruction librarian at Mount Royal University, working primarily with students in Communications

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  6. Hi I'm Kate, liaison librarian at Royal Holloway, Uni of London. New to academic librarianship and keen to learn from others. I have experience of working in media libraries so found this a fascinating article.

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    1. That's interesting. I was thinking about how experience of media librarians could be relevant here - I'm a bit out of touch now, but when I taught at Strathclyde I got to know some of the media librarians there well (mind you, there were also more of them in those days...)

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    2. had to let go of academicness to a certain degree - for these students the best source isn't always a peer reviewed article.... And a lot of that came from listening to the faculty - had a big sit down discussion about what they wanted students to be able to do by the time they graduated...

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    3. True Sheila that there were more media librarians some years ago. Our roles changed with new technology and we moved from being waitresses to tour guides as Nora Paul says. Our roles were guides and coaches helping to train journals in finding needles in haystacks. In lots of cases we were teaching IL

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    4. There's an interesting thesis on IL in newsrooms out of Australia - but of course I don't have reference handy (bad librarian!)

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    5. So Margy - you make the very relevant point that IL needs to be situated in a discipline to be really relevant to students (and academics!) particularly when we think about what are valid sources of information

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    6. I rerember legal issues (privacy, intellectual property, libel etc) being very important too, e.g. making sure that a story that had something dubious in it (e.g. someone had said it was libellous) wasn't refound and reused by someone who didn't realise

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    7. I think it helps embed the practice more in students' workflows to have it situated within their practices. But it was also interesting to see students using skills from other classes like Anthro and adapting them to journalism

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    8. I too remember journalists being the one audience of library users I didn't have to lecture on copyright law! Odd to see that written down. They were also the ones who taught me about the difference between slander and libel.

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    9. @Jane but also having awareness that there is something - "information literacy" or "information practice" - that you have to develop as a whole person - otherwise you may not be doing the "connecting it with the rest of your life" part

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    10. Sheila, for me you've just highlighted my concerns about the ACRL threshold concepts - there is a threshold to break through before these which involves that awareness of infolit/info practice.

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    11. Yes Margy, the comment that demonstrated a student transferring skills from one subject to another really stood out for me too. Did all of the students take other subjects alongside journalism? It would be interesting to look deeper into how they applied the skills and whether it made them better or worse at approaching subjects that rely on more purely 'academic' sources.

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    12. I've found that it works better if I'm really direct about making the connections - or setting up assignments where that's required... for some, but not all students, the realization of underlying skills/attributes comes through practice

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    13. @Helen - yes! For me, I would identify that as a threshold concept, I think...

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    14. Interesting point Margy, and probably very true that realisation of skills is the result of reinforcement and practice. Underlies importance of having an assignment to put into practice what you've learnt.

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    15. Hi Niamh - all students have to take some general education courses and then option courses in arts and sciences - and that was a 'wow' moment for me when i started looking at the data

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    16. I don't think I realised, before I started teaching, how much the students themselves silo what they get from each class or module (perhaps a problem that has been embedded by the school system) and as you say it's important explicitly to get them to reflect on the connections.

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    17. Hi Kate.. Here's the thesis I was thinking of 34
      Fiona Bradley, Information Literacy and News Libraries: The Challenge of Developing Information Literacy Instruction Programs in a Special Library Environment (masters thesis, Curtin University of Technology, 2003). Available: http://espace.library.curtin.edu.au/R?func=search-simple-go&ADJACENT=Y&REQUEST=adt-WCU20040119.113050 (July 25, 2008).

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  7. I was reflecting on your comments on knowledge transfer, Margy, and thinking that for me it is more a matter of people learning to connect their own knowledge base and experience with the information that they don't have yet. It's about students understanding that they have an information practice that is part of them (and that they have to develop as part of their professional practice), it's not outside them and just connected with a particular academic course.

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    1. Exactly - I think some schools do too good a job of siloing knowledge and disconnecting experience from academic understanding - a lot of what i do is help them see connections that are already there, but iève learned to do that pretty explicitly

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    2. That's one of the most fascinating aspects of this article for me - to be able to see the transfer of practice from one domain to the other - personal/academic/professional. I love how such a simple idea (the resume) facilitated this.

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    3. Some of the students said they liked seeing their learning in a particular area come together as they updated their resumes - which was kind of what i was hoping for

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    4. I agree with you Helen. I found this transfer of practice between domains fascinating. It's what we see in real lifeline but somehow it's more acceptable to discuss in some subjects than others, journalism being an example.

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  8. Hi, I am Karin. I'm an academic librarian from Austria and about to give an IL course for future English teachers to help them develop their academic and (future) professional information identities and literacies. Thrilled to be here since this is very relevant to what I will be trying to do, if in another discipline.

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    1. Would be really interested in what you think are the key information needs of English teachers

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    2. One thing that has come up, when my students are doing research in places where English is not the first language, is knowledge of English being an essential element in being information literate. This is partly because of so much information being in English, though also in some countries there is a status thing about English as well.

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    3. At the moment I am thinking less about the English in English teachers since that will be covered by language courses that also point to good language learning material but about the "teacher" in English teachers and that they will be responsible for supporting their own students in how they access and use information. How they integrate information literacy into the learning experiences they create will in turn influence their students. This also means they need to go beyond academic literacy. Some of the school books they are going to use may involve social media use by students and I expect some of them will include digital content and social media in their teaching repertoire. Furthermore there is the issue of how to keep up to date in their profession and in developments in English teaching.

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    4. Hmm - again - interesting article on that (but may have just read it for review) on connections between English as a foreign language and IL - I would say I might be information literate in French, but certainly wouldn't be in Japanese

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    5. There is the UNESCO curriculum for media and information literacy, but it doesn't cover information literacy nearly as well as media literacy in my view

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    6. The MIL curriculum for teachers - it's here http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/resources/publications-and-communication-materials/publications/full-list/media-and-information-literacy-curriculum-for-teachers/

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    7. I was also thinking of introducing them to the guided inquiry model as a tool they might use; the UNESCO curriculum works well for pointing out the need for such work by teachers I think.

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    8. Yes. I think that there is still a surprisingly large gap in teacher education - mostly not preparing them for developing learners' information literacy.

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    9. I see the gap here too - I think for a long time IL was left to MLIS-trained teacher-librarians,but they're rare as hen's teeth now, and i think Il has fallen through the cracks in k-12. When I ask students with stellar first i-skills resumes, turns out some have had some great high school teachers, but most aren't that lucky

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    10. Hi Karin here's the article on IL and EFL that I was thinking of, it's from Reference Services Review

      Understanding the information literacy experiences of EFL (English as a foreign language) students
      Nicole Johnston , Helen Partridge , Hilary Hughes (pp. 552 - 568)
      Keywords: Information literacy , EFL students , ESL students , Phenomenography , Language , Learning
      Type: Research paper
      AbstractHTMLPDF (166 KB)Reprints and Permissions

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  9. Hi Everyone - sorry to join late, I am Jane the editor of the Journal of Information Literacy and we were thrilled to publish Margy's article in December

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    1. Hi Jane! I was equally thrilled that you published it!

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    2. Hi Jane - good to have you joining this discussion. What did you find most interesting about Margy's article?

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    3. I think the article for me really chimed with an experience I had while a research fellow a few years back. I met a top journalist from New Zealand who was doing research at the same time of me, and she basically became fascinated by my work on IL, saying yes, this is exactly what all journalists need to know!

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    4. I agree with you Jane. My experience of journos in late 1980s and 1990s, on verge of technology changes, was that most had IL skills, and put these to good use once librarians had delivered them a range of resources. Our role changed from being suppliers of content to teachers of how to find the content in new technology world. The constant thing was the IL skills now that I think of it.

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    5. Hi Kate - there were many parts of this study I liked - it collected rich data over 5 years of students information behaviour, which I found fascinating. but the use of the I-Skills resume to help student reflect on their behaviour and the way their information literacy developed over the course of their degree was also fascinating.

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    6. Jane - I too found the I-Skills resume reflections fascinating. It was great to be able to see how their behaviour and attitudes changed over the course of their degree. How they began to make connections between their new found skills and personal and work experiences. It really emphasised the importance of IL as a life skill.

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    7. It was such a simple tool to use - students responded to it really well, gave them a more positive feeling too than some other assessment measures...

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    8. The sheer number of real life examples gathered in this exercise was amazing - one of the best aspects of the study!

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    9. Margy - do other people are your university use the iSkills resumes? They are something that you developed right, but I wondered if other librarians were using them?

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    10. Margy - pleased to hear students responded to it well. We were just talking in the office today about how to get some idea of the benefits of IL training and the I-Skills resume seemed like a good idea to me, so thanks for sharing it in your article.

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    11. Much easier than interviews, with the added bonus of seeing individual students' growth over time! Tons of data, looking forward to diving back into it for a closer look at TC's

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    12. yes I really like the 'added bonus of seeing individual students' growth over time', particularly if you start with first years and follow them through the three years. Maybe a good way to sell benefits of IL to academics.

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    13. In sessions at my university i actually had faculty fill out i-skills resumes - resulted in a flurry of consultations to update skills

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    14. that's a wonderful idea Margy. I shall definitely share that with colleagues may help in some of those difficult conversations when you're trying to persuade others that they need embedded IL.

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    15. Hi Jane - sorry - missed the question on whether others were using them. At the moment no (and to be honest I'm not either, partly because reflection on learning in the larger sense is now much more common in the communications courses). But other libraries, librarians have used - occasionally see instances or get emails for advice. I can say that it worked really well for me and seemed to be worth the time for most of the students as well.

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    16. I'd love to see a follow-up study in another subject area/context. Will give it some thought!

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    17. Would be happy to chat more at some point with tips on implementation... made a couple of mistakes in the early years that no one needs to repeat!

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    18. I may well take you up on that offer!

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    19. We have reflective components in quite a few classses including reflection on their IL. There was a blog post discussion about my colleagues' analysis of business intelligence students' reflection on their information literacy http://ojs.lboro.ac.uk/ojs/index.php/JIL/article/view/LLC-V6-I2-2012-5 . When Bill Johnston and I ran a credit bearing module on Information Literacy for business school students at Strathclyde in the 1990s, one of the assignments was a reflection on the information literacy they'd experienced in their study of their principle subject (marketing, accounting or whatever). There were some fascinating observations on what was happening in their other modules, the approach to teaching, and where they felt IL fitted in.

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    20. Thanks for the heads up on the article, have added it to my reading pile. I love watching this kind of integration happen, whether in class, or in assignments.. Also seeing some, although not as much as I would hope, in a large multiyear set of interviews with students about their university experience at Mount Royal...

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  10. Margy - you mentioned threshold concepts briefly in your article - how useful did you find the new framework? I ask because I'm about to try and use it to redesign a module as part of a teaching course I'm doing (purely hypothetical redesign however). Interestingly, another member of my cohort exploring threshold concepts is looking at how these apply to journalism.

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    1. I've found the whole TC move fascinating and infinitely more useful in considering more complex aspects of IL than the standards - we have a number of faculty including at least two in journalism also looking at TCs in the disciplines...
      What i saw in the resumes coincided a lot more with understanding deeper concepts of information, than with individual skills. I think the students understand it a a process that gets them what they need, not necessarily as atomized steps

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    2. I'm still in early days at trying to apply the TCs but after an initial reaction that I felt they were rather impenetrable, I think I will find them useful. It's quite a shift in approach and as a result feels uncomfortable at the moment, but hopefully will be more effective.

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    3. I'm rewriting the IL 'syllabi' i do for the programs in communication - with TC's more as an exercise for myself at this point - it's interesting when i use that perspective to see what's there already and what's neglected, or where i might be being too subtle

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    4. I think all need to see how they might work in practice - there will be an interesting symposium about theories and frameworks and their relationship to practice at LILAC this year

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    5. I'm about to sign off to go and lead discussion about one the threshold concept papers at the Second Life journal club (through bad planning they ended up on the same night), I'm looking at TCs at the moment as well.

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    6. Oh no! Sorry for the clash Sheila, hope the other discussion goes well.

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    7. Good luck with that Sheila and great you could join us - this has been our first discussion for a while and we are off to an excellent start for 2015!

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    8. Enjoy the discussion, Sheila - thanks for participating here! -

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    9. I shall keep dipping in til 9pm UK time, great thing about blog post discussion is that you can't see people multitasking!

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    10. very true. I've been following and contributing to this blog post discussion, my first, while keeping an eye on #slatalk on branding on Twitter. Have to say I've got more from the blog post discussion as I'm enjoying the ability to say more than 140 characters per post.

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    11. Me too! nice to not have to go back and edit for length!

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  11. Margy - when you write about the role of social media and transfer and integration I was reminded of metaliteracy (a concept that also contributed to the Framework, see e.g. http://metaliteracy.org/about/) since I am currently reading up on that - do you see that as another useful concept when teaching journalism students? Do you ever discuss any concepts be it from the Framework, ANCIL or metaliteracy with your students to introduce thinking about the way they go about finding, using, creating information in or across their different information ecosystems?

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    1. Hi - metaliteracy is next on my list of things to look into...;-) I do talk fairly explicitly about some of the concepts behind the TCs - and others - try to be transparent about why i teach what i teach the way i do it, but in terms that make sense. Have been using the scholarship as conversation metaphor for a long time now and also talking about recursive research processes, what makes something authoritative etc. - in both the theory adn practice courses.

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    2. ... and - in part that was I why I started using the I-SKILLS resume in the first place - wanted to prompt reflection about their information skills - where and how they were learning, what they were doing that required/used/demonstrated IL etc. A lot of that learning now happens in discussions,in the rpactice classes particularly around decisions - choice of medium, choice of sources, choice of words and honestly I see some of the TC's more in their journalism work than in their IL work - but its difficult to disentangle the two

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    3. Margy, that sounds really fascinating; possibly they feel more engaged with their journalism work than with more abstract IL or academic skills?

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    4. With journalism, I would think that there would be threshold concept(s) for journalism that had an information element, since it's so fundamental to the discipline

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    5. Sheila and Karin - I think you're both right. The students definitely identify more with being journalists than say, librarians or academics. But i think the IL and journalism mindsets/concepts are so deeply intertwined that complete separation is nigh impossible. And... I don't think it would be useful for the students... going back to Jane's earlier point about situatedness

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  12. One point I also found interesting was that you found students were very confident in their fact checking - did you agree they used reliable sources?

    As an aside, I'm still trying to track down a reference for an 'effect' I came across a while back - when you see something in the news that you know about, you see all the factual errors and don't trust the reporting, but when it's a topic you don't know about you conveniently forget this and believe the news! If you've come across this please let me know!

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  13. Just to say, although it's coming up to 9pm feel free to keep the conversation going, whether it's now or by adding further thoughts in future. Thank you all for joining us and especially to Margy for kicking off the discussion.

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    1. Thanks Niamh, Margy and everyone else!

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    2. Thanks again for hosting it! - will be here a little longer as I want to respond to a few more comments - anyone else having Google verify they're not a robot by asking to identify pictures of beer? is google trying to tell me something?

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    3. No, I think it's just you Margy ;-)

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    4. I didn't turn on word verification (unless someone else turned it on) - I turned off comment moderation for the day
      Anyway, thanks for the conversation, I will go back and reread too.

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    5. Yes keep the discussion going please do (I think it's much earlier in Canada isn't it?) - we will re-tweet the blog post, as people do add comments much later as well!

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    6. Many thanks to Margy and Niamh for organising the event. Very much enjoyed it.

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  14. Hi Helen - will have a look tonight - have seen something along those lines, and no, i'm not as confident as i'd like to be that they use reliable sources - they do tend to use more than one to check any particular fact... but. In the past we've had discussions around reference tools, including wikipedia for that, including potential issues with using the CIA factbook which was an early source

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    1. I can vouch for several sources being the norm, it was usually three in the BBC, except when you had a correspondent on the ground then you only needed that person and one other. Although there was an understandable hierarchy of sources.

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    2. Hi Helen... This isn't exactly it but there are intriguing references that I think point in the right direction... I'm going to check with colleagues who teach the communication theory to see if they can get closer to the named effect.... ohio-state.edu [PDF]
      The promise and peril of real-time corrections to political misperceptions
      RK Garrett, BE Weeks - Proceedings of the 2013 conference on …, 2013 - dl.acm.org
      ... has different consequences for belief depending on the individual's prior knowledge and
      confidence [7 ... This information was gleaned from contemporary news stories and government
      sources, and ... that contains a number of factual errors, purportedly copied from “a widely read ...
      Cited by 11 Related articles All 3 versions Cite Save More

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    3. Hi Helen... Looks like this thesis might explore the issue...
      https://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:6235/Stockwell.pdf

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  15. I'm going to have to duck out now, but thanks Margy and thanks to everyone for the excellent discussion. I think there is a lot of food for thought in your article, and as I said at the start we were really pleased to publish it. I'm also going to think about whether we could use the iSkills resume at LSE.

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  16. Thanks for joining us Jane! Yes, I'm thinking about how we might use it too, maybe as a tool for Doctoral Training Centres (which requires that students build up skills they will need for a phd)? Might have a chat with a friendly academic or two...

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  17. Ok - I think I've answered everything I meant to. Thanks again everyone for an energizing, interesting discussion - especially appreciate the links to journalism practice. Will find what I said i'd look for (she said optimistically) and post here when I do. cheers all, m

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